Character Entity References in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0

We would like to recognize Elizabeth Castro for her great work in compiling this list.

You see more of her work here http://www.elizabethcastro.com/html/extras/entities.html

Here is a set of tables containing the 252 allowed entities in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0, as described in section 24 of the official HTML 4 specifications, published by the W3C. I have divided them into my own, hopefully logical, categories:

Each table has five columns. The first column contains the entity reference, in the form &entity_name;, that is, an ampersand, the entity name, and then a semi colon. The second column displays how that entity appears in your browser. The proper character will only appear if you have a font that can display it. The third column contains the number reference for the same character in the form &#number;, that is, an ampersand, a hash symbol (which signals that a number reference is coming), the character’s number, and then a semi colon. The fourth column shows how the number reference displays in your browser. Again, the proper character is only displayed if the default font selected in your browser preferences contains such a character.

The fifth column contains a description of the character, and an occasional note. You can either hover over the note link to see the note, or click it to go the notes page, which will open in a separate window.

There are many ways to order character entities. You can order them alphabetically, by number, or by Unicode collection, to mention just a few methods. I find all of these rather arbitrary. So, I have taken the liberty of classifying them into what I consider logical categories, and sometimes subcategories, and then by alphabetical order. I hope you find it useful. And don’t forget, you can always use your browser’s Find command to find a particular word or phrase within this page.

For more information on how to use these entities in your Web pages, see HTML, XHTML, and CSS, Sixth Edition by Elizabeth Castro.

Entities for characters with special meaning in HTML and XHTML

Entity Entity
Displayed
Number Number
Displayed
Description
& & & & ampersand
> > > > greater-than sign
&lt; < &#60; < less-than sign
&quot; &#34; quotation mark = APL quote

Entities for accented characters, accents, and other diacritics from Western European Languages

Entity Entity
Displayed
Number Number
Displayed
Description
&acute; ´ &#180; ´ acute accent = spacing acute
&cedil; ¸ &#184; ¸ cedilla = spacing cedilla
&circ; ˆ &#710; ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent
&macr; ¯ &#175; ¯ macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar
&middot; · &#183; · middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot
&tilde; ˜ &#732; ˜ small tilde
&uml; ¨ &#168; ¨ diaeresis = spacing diaeresis
&Aacute; Á &#193; Á latin capital letter A with acute
&aacute; á &#225; á latin small letter a with acute
&Acirc; Â &#194; Â latin capital letter A with circumflex
&acirc; â &#226; â latin small letter a with circumflex
&AElig; Æ &#198; Æ latin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE
&aelig; æ &#230; æ latin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae
&Agrave; À &#192; À latin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave
&agrave; à &#224; à latin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave
&Aring; Å &#197; Å latin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring
&aring; å &#229; å latin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring
&Atilde; Ã &#195; Ã latin capital letter A with tilde
&atilde; ã &#227; ã latin small letter a with tilde
&Auml; Ä &#196; Ä latin capital letter A with diaeresis
&auml; ä &#228; ä latin small letter a with diaeresis
&Ccedil; Ç &#199; Ç latin capital letter C with cedilla
&ccedil; ç &#231; ç latin small letter c with cedilla
&Eacute; É &#201; É latin capital letter E with acute
&eacute; é &#233; é latin small letter e with acute
&Ecirc; Ê &#202; Ê latin capital letter E with circumflex
&ecirc; ê &#234; ê latin small letter e with circumflex
&Egrave; È &#200; È latin capital letter E with grave
&egrave; è &#232; è latin small letter e with grave
&ETH; Ð &#208; Ð latin capital letter ETH
&eth; ð &#240; ð latin small letter eth
&Euml; Ë &#203; Ë latin capital letter E with diaeresis
&euml; ë &#235; ë latin small letter e with diaeresis
&Iacute; Í &#205; Í latin capital letter I with acute
&iacute; í &#237; í latin small letter i with acute
&Icirc; Î &#206; Î latin capital letter I with circumflex
&icirc; î &#238; î latin small letter i with circumflex
&Igrave; Ì &#204; Ì latin capital letter I with grave
&igrave; ì &#236; ì latin small letter i with grave
&Iuml; Ï &#207; Ï latin capital letter I with diaeresis
&iuml; ï &#239; ï latin small letter i with diaeresis
&Ntilde; Ñ &#209; Ñ latin capital letter N with tilde
&ntilde; ñ &#241; ñ latin small letter n with tilde
&Oacute; Ó &#211; Ó latin capital letter O with acute
&oacute; ó &#243; ó latin small letter o with acute
&Ocirc; Ô &#212; Ô latin capital letter O with circumflex
&ocirc; ô &#244; ô latin small letter o with circumflex
&OElig; Π&#338; Πlatin capital ligature OE
&oelig; œ &#339; œ latin small ligature oe (note)
&Ograve; Ò &#210; Ò latin capital letter O with grave
&ograve; ò &#242; ò latin small letter o with grave
&Oslash; Ø &#216; Ø latin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash
&oslash; ø &#248; ø latin small letter o with stroke, = latin small letter o slash
&Otilde; Õ &#213; Õ latin capital letter O with tilde
&otilde; õ &#245; õ latin small letter o with tilde
&Ouml; Ö &#214; Ö latin capital letter O with diaeresis
&ouml; ö &#246; ö latin small letter o with diaeresis
&Scaron; Š &#352; Š latin capital letter S with caron
&scaron; š &#353; š latin small letter s with caron
&szlig; ß &#223; ß latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed
&THORN; Þ &#222; Þ latin capital letter THORN
&thorn; þ &#254; þ latin small letter thorn
&Uacute; Ú &#218; Ú latin capital letter U with acute
&uacute; ú &#250; ú latin small letter u with acute
&Ucirc; Û &#219; Û latin capital letter U with circumflex
&ucirc; û &#251; û latin small letter u with circumflex
&Ugrave; Ù &#217; Ù latin capital letter U with grave
&ugrave; ù &#249; ù latin small letter u with grave
&Uuml; Ü &#220; Ü latin capital letter U with diaeresis
&uuml; ü &#252; ü latin small letter u with diaeresis
&Yacute; Ý &#221; Ý latin capital letter Y with acute
&yacute; ý &#253; ý latin small letter y with acute
&yuml; ÿ &#255; ÿ latin small letter y with diaeresis
&Yuml; Ÿ &#376; Ÿ latin capital letter Y with diaeresis

Entities for punctuation characters

Entity Entity
Displayed
Number Number
Displayed
Description
&cent; ¢ &#162; ¢ cent sign
&curren; ¤ &#164; ¤ currency sign
&euro; &#8364; euro sign
&pound; £ &#163; £ pound sign
&yen; ¥ &#165; ¥ yen sign = yuan sign
&brvbar; ¦ &#166; ¦ broken bar = broken vertical bar
&bull; &#8226; bullet = black small circle (note)
&copy; © &#169; © copyright sign
&dagger; &#8224; dagger
&Dagger; &#8225; double dagger
&frasl; &#8260; fraction slash
&hellip; &#8230; horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader
&iexcl; ¡ &#161; ¡ inverted exclamation mark
&image; &#8465; blackletter capital I = imaginary part
&iquest; ¿ &#191; ¿ inverted question mark = turned question mark
&lrm; &#8206; left-to-right mark (for formatting only)
&mdash; &#8212; em dash
&ndash; &#8211; en dash
&not; ¬ &#172; ¬ not sign
&oline; &#8254; overline = spacing overscore
&ordf; ª &#170; ª feminine ordinal indicator
&ordm; º &#186; º masculine ordinal indicator
&para; &#182; pilcrow sign = paragraph sign
&permil; &#8240; per mille sign
&prime; &#8242; prime = minutes = feet
&Prime; &#8243; double prime = seconds = inches
&real; &#8476; blackletter capital R = real part symbol
&reg; ® &#174; ® registered sign = registered trade mark sign
&rlm; &#8207; right-to-left mark (for formatting only)
&sect; § &#167; § section sign
&shy; &#173; soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen (displays incorrectly on Mac)
&sup1; ¹ &#185; ¹ superscript one = superscript digit one
&trade; &#8482; trade mark sign
&weierp; &#8472; script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p
&bdquo; &#8222; double low-9 quotation mark
&laquo; « &#171; « left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet
&ldquo; &#8220; left double quotation mark
&lsaquo; &#8249; single left-pointing angle quotation mark (note)
&lsquo; &#8216; left single quotation mark
&raquo; » &#187; » right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet
&rdquo; &#8221; right double quotation mark
&rsaquo; &#8250; single right-pointing angle quotation mark (note)
&rsquo; &#8217; right single quotation mark
&sbquo; &#8218; single low-9 quotation mark
&emsp; &#8195; em space
&ensp; &#8194; en space
&nbsp; &#160; no-break space = non-breaking space
&thinsp; &#8201; thin space
&zwj; &#8205; zero width joiner
&zwnj; &#8204; zero width non-joiner

Entities for mathematical and technical characters (including Greek)

Entity Entity
Displayed
Number Number
Displayed
Description
&deg; ° &#176; ° degree sign
&divide; ÷ &#247; ÷ division sign
&frac12; ½ &#189; ½ vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half
&frac14; ¼ &#188; ¼ vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter
&frac34; ¾ &#190; ¾ vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters
&ge; &#8805; greater-than or equal to
&le; &#8804; less-than or equal to
&minus; &#8722; minus sign
&sup2; ² &#178; ² superscript two = superscript digit two = squared
&sup3; ³ &#179; ³ superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed
&times; × &#215; × multiplication sign
&alefsym; &#8501; alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal (note)
&and; &#8743; logical and = wedge
&ang; &#8736; angle
&asymp; &#8776; almost equal to = asymptotic to
&cap; &#8745; intersection = cap
&cong; &#8773; approximately equal to
&cup; &#8746; union = cup
&empty; &#8709; empty set = null set = diameter
&equiv; &#8801; identical to
&exist; &#8707; there exists
&fnof; ƒ &#402; ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin
&forall; &#8704; for all
&infin; &#8734; infinity
&int; &#8747; integral
&isin; &#8712; element of
&lang; &#9001; left-pointing angle bracket = bra (note)
&lceil; &#8968; left ceiling = apl upstile
&lfloor; &#8970; left floor = apl downstile
&lowast; &#8727; asterisk operator
&micro; µ &#181; µ micro sign
&nabla; &#8711; nabla = backward difference
&ne; &#8800; not equal to
&ni; &#8715; contains as member (note)
&notin; &#8713; not an element of
&nsub; &#8836; not a subset of
&oplus; &#8853; circled plus = direct sum
&or; &#8744; logical or = vee
&otimes; &#8855; circled times = vector product
&part; &#8706; partial differential
&perp; &#8869; up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular
&plusmn; ± &#177; ± plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign
&prod; &#8719; n-ary product = product sign (note)
&prop; &#8733; proportional to
&radic; &#8730; square root = radical sign
&rang; &#9002; right-pointing angle bracket = ket (note)
&rceil; &#8969; right ceiling
&rfloor; &#8971; right floor
&sdot; &#8901; dot operator (note)
&sim; &#8764; tilde operator = varies with = similar to (note)
&sub; &#8834; subset of
&sube; &#8838; subset of or equal to
&sum; &#8721; n-ary sumation (note)
&sup; &#8835; superset of (note)
&supe; &#8839; superset of or equal to
&there4; &#8756; therefore
&Alpha; Α &#913; Α greek capital letter alpha
&alpha; α &#945; α greek small letter alpha
&Beta; Β &#914; Β greek capital letter beta
&beta; β &#946; β greek small letter beta
&Chi; Χ &#935; Χ greek capital letter chi
&chi; χ &#967; χ greek small letter chi
&Delta; Δ &#916; Δ greek capital letter delta
&delta; δ &#948; δ greek small letter delta
&Epsilon; Ε &#917; Ε greek capital letter epsilon
&epsilon; ε &#949; ε greek small letter epsilon
&Eta; Η &#919; Η greek capital letter eta
&eta; η &#951; η greek small letter eta
&Gamma; Γ &#915; Γ greek capital letter gamma
&gamma; γ &#947; γ greek small letter gamma
&Iota; Ι &#921; Ι greek capital letter iota
&iota; ι &#953; ι greek small letter iota
&Kappa; Κ &#922; Κ greek capital letter kappa
&kappa; κ &#954; κ greek small letter kappa
&Lambda; Λ &#923; Λ greek capital letter lambda
&lambda; λ &#955; λ greek small letter lambda
&Mu; Μ &#924; Μ greek capital letter mu
&mu; μ &#956; μ greek small letter mu
&Nu; Ν &#925; Ν greek capital letter nu
&nu; ν &#957; ν greek small letter nu
&Omega; Ω &#937; Ω greek capital letter omega
&omega; ω &#969; ω greek small letter omega
&Omicron; Ο &#927; Ο greek capital letter omicron
&omicron; ο &#959; ο greek small letter omicron
&Phi; Φ &#934; Φ greek capital letter phi
&phi; φ &#966; φ greek small letter phi
&Pi; Π &#928; Π greek capital letter pi
&pi; π &#960; π greek small letter pi
&piv; ϖ &#982; ϖ greek pi symbol
&Psi; Ψ &#936; Ψ greek capital letter psi
&psi; ψ &#968; ψ greek small letter psi
&Rho; Ρ &#929; Ρ greek capital letter rho
&rho; ρ &#961; ρ greek small letter rho
&Sigma; Σ &#931; Σ greek capital letter sigma
&sigma; σ &#963; σ greek small letter sigma
&sigmaf; ς &#962; ς greek small letter final sigma (note)
&Tau; Τ &#932; Τ greek capital letter tau
&tau; τ &#964; τ greek small letter tau
&Theta; Θ &#920; Θ greek capital letter theta
&theta; θ &#952; θ greek small letter theta
&thetasym; ϑ &#977; ϑ greek small letter theta symbol
&upsih; ϒ &#978; ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol
&Upsilon; Υ &#933; Υ greek capital letter upsilon
&upsilon; υ &#965; υ greek small letter upsilon
&Xi; Ξ &#926; Ξ greek capital letter xi
&xi; ξ &#958; ξ greek small letter xi
&Zeta; Ζ &#918; Ζ greek capital letter zeta
&zeta; ζ &#950; ζ greek small letter zeta

Entities for shapes and arrows

Entity Entity
Displayed
Number Number
Displayed
Description
&crarr; &#8629; downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return
&darr; &#8595; downwards arrow
&dArr; &#8659; downwards double arrow
&harr; &#8596; left right arrow
&hArr; &#8660; left right double arrow
&larr; &#8592; leftwards arrow
&lArr; &#8656; leftwards double arrow (note)
&rarr; &#8594; rightwards arrow
&rArr; &#8658; rightwards double arrow (note)
&uarr; &#8593; upwards arrow
&uArr; &#8657; upwards double arrow
&clubs; &#9827; black club suit = shamrock
&diams; &#9830; black diamond suit
&hearts; &#9829; black heart suit = valentine
&spades; &#9824; black spade suit (note)
&loz; &#9674; lozenge

The information in this document is Copyright © 1994-2002 W3C ® (Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyInstitut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique,Keio University), All Rights Reserved. http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/

The layout of this document is copyright © 2002 Elizabeth Castro. Please don’t copy this document. Instead link to it. Thanks!

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